Archived Webinar

Understanding the Economic Impacts of GHG Mitigation on Shipping

In April 2018, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) committed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping by at least 50% by 2050 (compared to 2008). The initial IMO strategy stipulates that any GHG reduction measure should be considered in the light of its impacts on States. Any disproportionately negative impacts should be assessed and addressed as appropriate. Focusing on the economic impacts of GHG mitigation measures, a new research paper by the World Bank (1) analyzes how these impacts might propagate through transport, trade and economies of States, (2) compiles the latest findings on the order of magnitude, and (3) discusses state-of-the art modeling approaches for future impact assessments. The paper breaks the economic impacts down into transport costs, transport choices, import prices of goods, and international trade and economies of States and explains how these areas might be affected by GHG mitigation policies. Based on an extensive literature review, it finds that the economic impacts on States are expected to be mostly small to moderate in nature. Consequently, future analysis can focus on few specific commodities and countries only. To discuss these findings in more detail and to share methodological suggestions for future impact assessments, this webinar is being organized for policy-makers in international maritime transport.

About the Presenters

Dr. Tristan Smith

Dr. Tristan Smith, Reader in Energy and Transport at UCL has, since 2010, grown a substantial group focused on modeling and analysis of shipping’s efficiency and emissions. He led the 3rd IMO GHG Study, is lead author of ISO 19030, co-chair of World Bank's CPLC Maritime Thread, and has been involved in numerous projects across the academic, industry and policy domains. The group maintains a number of models including GloTraM, which is used by several multinationals to explore shipping's future scenarios and technology evolution. Along with Dr Simon Davies, he is co-founder of University Maritime Advisory Services (UMAS).

Dr. Jan Hoffmann

Dr. Jan Hoffmann joined UNCTAD in 2003 and is currently Chief of the organization’s Trade Logistics Branch, responsible for research and technical assistance programmes in international transport and trade facilitation. Jan is co-author and coordinator of the “Review of Maritime Transport”, initiated the UNCTAD “Maritime Country Profiles”, and created the annual “Liner Shipping Connectivity Index”. Previously, he spent six years with the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean in Santiago de Chile, and two years with the IMO in London and Santiago. Prior to this, he held part time positions as assistant professor, import-export agent, consultant, and seafarer on an Antigua and Barbuda flagged tweendecker. Jan has studied in Germany, UK and Spain, and holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Hamburg. He is member of the boards of various journals and associations and past president of the International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME).

Dominik Englert

Dominik has turned his passion for fighting climate change into his profession. In his efforts to put a price on carbon emissions, he has worked for the World Bank Group in Washington, D.C, as a climate economist since 2015. Here, he particularly focuses on decarbonizing international maritime transport. Next to his engagement in the shipping industry, he develops carbon pricing policies in West Africa and supports climate action in the agricultural sector. Prior to joining the World Bank Group, Dominik met the challenges of climate change as a senior advisor for First Climate, a private consultancy based in Zurich. He oversaw the carbon compliance management for large industrials, advised public institutions on climate policy and traded CO2 allowances in the EU and Swiss emissions trading systems. Dominik holds three master’s degrees in Finance & Strategy (Sciences Po), International Affairs & Governance (University of St. Gallen) and International Management (CEMS).

Ronald A. Halim

Ronald A. Halim is a freight transport specialist with more than 8 years experience in policy analysis and model development. Most recently, he worked as a transport economist for the World Bank Group who leads a report on “Understanding the economic impacts of GHG mitigation policies on shipping”. Ronald has also served as the co-author of OECD/ITF’s report “Decarbonising Maritime Transport: Pathways to zero carbon-shipping by 2035” and “the ITF Outlook 2017”. He holds a PhD from Delft University of Technology in strategic modeling of global freight transport.

Questions Submitted

Mahaman Mourtala

- Jun 30, 2022


- Jul 29, 2021

jose luis

- Jul 13, 2021


- Jan 21, 2021
Great course! informative and knowledgeable documents.


- Dec 11, 2020
informative and interesting

Mohammad Nadir

- May 5, 2020

Joy Mildred Adhiambo

- Dec 10, 2019
Understanding the Economic Impacts of GHG Mitigation on Shipping


- Oct 24, 2019


- Sep 8, 2019
Hybrid engines and using wind can help for GHG emissions

Waqar Aamir

- Jun 8, 2019
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