"There is no clear development goal for transport access, unlike in the water and sanitation sector and the electricity sector."

Transport investment needs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for 2015–30 range between 0.5 percent and 3.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) per year, depending on the choice of mode and the success of policies to influence occupancy. Future demand for mobility can be satisfied at relatively low infrastructure investment costs (1.3 percent of GDP) and low carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions via a shift toward more rail and urban public transport if policies are in place to ensure high rail occupancy and urban densification.