Climate change imposes stark challenges for the food-insecure Sahel and particularly for the Niger Basin's already highly vulnerable population of 112 million. Six of the nine basin countries are among the world’s least developed, with high poverty and weak social and economic safety nets. Water is a fundamental pathway through which climate change is impacting people and environment, making water-related resilience-building interventions a top priority. Because the basin countries share surface and groundwater, a coordinated approach presents significant opportunities to more effectively build resilience and avoid maladaptation. Recognizing this, the Niger Basin countries, led by the Niger Basin Authority (NBA) and supported by the CIWA program, the World Bank, and African Development Bank, joined together in 2015 to develop a Climate Resilience Investment Plan.