Many Small Island States have basic elements of Social Protection systems in place, which can be deployed to support disaster preparedness and response. These include social safety net and labor market programs; social insurance to help mitigate against drops in well-being; social services to address the needs of affected populations; and service delivery instruments that can be used to support affected households. These basic system elements provide a foundation on which a well-functioning and responsive Social Protection system can be further developed. Social Protection’s contribution to climate and disaster resilience is increasingly being appreciated in Small Island States. Countries such as Jamaica have scaled up Social Protection programs to respond to natural hazards, while others, such as Comoros have taken steps to adapt and scale up programs to build resilience. Small Island States can work towards adaptive and responsive Social Protection systems at varying levels of maturity and sophistication. By aligning Social Protection provision with resilience objectives, countries could more effectively help vulnerable households adapt to climate change, prepare for disasters, and restore livelihoods quickly should a disaster strike.