Knowledge Note

Rwanda’s capital city of Kigali is home to more than one million people, and the population is expected to grow significantly in the coming years due to a combination of migration from densely populated rural areas and the city’s rapid economic growth. The population expansion is placing a significant strain on Kigali’s infrastructure services, particularly in the water sector. In 2009, Rwanda’s official water coverage rate stood at 76 percent (with access defined as being within 200 meters of an improved water source), and only 30 percent of customers had household or yard connections. Additionally, water demand in Kigali was estimated to be 69,000 m3/day, against a supply of 54,000 m3/day, resulting in a deficit of 15,000 m3/day.