The presentation begins by providing a backdrop of the status and nature of urbanization in India. It then underlines the unique position of the Mumbai region as an economic and financial powerhouse in Maharashtra’s and India’s economy. In particular, it points to the substantial contribution by Mumbai to the State and Central governments’ revenues, by laying the foundation to the “goose that lays the golden egg” argument. Thus, it argues for greater investment by higher levels of governments for infrastructure provision in the region. The extent of public investments by all three tiers of government in the region are shown to be rather low. The presentation focuses in greater detail on the finances of the urban local bodies (ULBs) and briefly discusses trends in non-ULB public investments such as Centrally Sponsored Schemes and investments by State and Central parastatals. It comments on the nature of Public Private Partnerships for infrastructure provision in Mumbai. Further, the presentation dwells on the huge challenges facing Mumbai, specifically related to, land governance, the problem of slums and provision of affordable housing. Finally, the presentation highlights the issues in metropolitan governance, which is the key to improving the situation in Mumbai region.