The Tanzania National Panel Survey (NPS) is a unique, and as yet largely underutilized, source of knowledge and information on rural Tanzania’s economy and living standards. It is a nationally representative survey regularly conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Consequently it is much richer in data on the rural economy than previous living standard surveys carried out in Tanzania in the past, thus allowing painting a much more refined picture compared to what has been possible to date. Its first round, on which this note is based, was carried out in 2008-09. Since then, the survey has been implemented every two years (2010-11 and 2012-13, ongoing).