Knowledge Note

Karnataka is the fifth-most urbanized state in the country, with 23.6 million urban residents spread across 213 municipalities, or Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). Municipalities are responsible for providing an ever-growing urban population with services that greatly impact the livability of cities including water, sanitation, waste disposal, drainage, local transportation, street lighting, and other services. In 2004, the Government of Karnataka (GoK) began an extensive process of municipal reforms to improve services and increase transparency. While traditionally municipal e-governance reforms had been driven at the local level, this was the first initiative of its kind in India where a standardized set of systems and processes was introduced for all municipal bodies across the state.

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