Gender Learning 2021 - The intersection of Gender Norms and Women's Empowerment/Agency Within and Outside the Household: Innovations in Measurement and it’s Operational Implications

"Helping teams think of their intervention objectives, define measurement for progress and evaluation, and identify what works and what doesn’t."

This Bite+ presents innovations on measurement and understanding of social norms related to gender and women’s agency that can help teams think of their intervention objectives, define measurement for progress and evaluation, a... view more


Introduction and Opening Remarks by Gabriel Demombynes, Practice Leader from the World Bank.


The Best Way to Measure Women’s Agency Using Just Five Questions by Seema Jayachandran, Economist at Northwestern University, Illinois.


What Are We Measuring When We Measure Decision Making? by Aletheia Donald, Economist from the World Bank.


It Takes Two (To Make Things Right): Women’s Empowerment and Couple Concordance in South Asia by Nayantara Sarma, E T Consultant from the World Bank.


Measuring and Intervening to Change Gender Social Norms in MNA by Nour Nasr, Behavioral scientist from the World Bank.


Curse of the Mummy-ji: The Influence of Mothers-in-Law on Women in India by S Anukriti, Economist from the World Bank.

About the Presenters

Gabriel Demombynes

Practice Leader, World Bank, Bogota

Gabriel Demombynes is the World Bank’s Practice Leader for Human Development for Colombia and Venezuela. Based in Bogota, he leads the Bank’s program in those countries in the areas of education, health, nutrition, population, social protection, and jobs. Previously, Gabriel has held positions based in Manila, Hanoi, and Nairobi. He led the preparation of the Philippines COVID-19 Emergency Response Project and Systematic Country Diagnostics for the Philippines and Vietnam. Other prominent examples of his varied work include critiques of the Millennium Villages Project evaluation, the development of innovative approaches to surveys in South Sudan, and studies of crime and violence in Central America and the Caribbean. His work has been published in academic journals and cited in the Financial Times, the Washington Post, and Economist magazine. He has taught economic development at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and was the Economic Policy Advisor to Howard Dean during his 2003-04 U.S. presidential campaign. Gabriel holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California-Berkeley and a Bachelor's degrees in civil engineering and humanities from the University of Texas at Austin.

Seema Jayachandran

Economist, Northwestern University, Illinois

Seema Jayachandran is a Professor of Economics at Northwestern University. Her research focuses on economic issues in developing countries, including environmental conservation, gender equality, labor markets, health, and education. She is a recipient of a Sloan Research Fellowship, National Science Foundation Early Career Development Award, and the Ecological Society of America's Sustainability Science Award. Seema currently serves on the board of directors for the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) and is the chair of J-PAL's gender sector. She is co-editor for the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics and co-director of the National Bureau of Economic Research's program in Development Economics. In addition, she writes regularly for the New York Times as a contributor to the Economic View column. Prior to joining Northwestern, she was a faculty member at Stanford University. She earned a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University, a Master’s degree in physics and philosophy from the University of Oxford where she was a Marshall Scholar, and a Bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from MIT.

S Anukriti

Economist, World Bank

Anukriti is an Economist in the Development Research Group (Human Development Team) of the World Bank. She is an applied micro-economist, with interests in the fields of development economics, the economics of gender and the family, and political economy. Her research examines the underlying causes of gender inequalities in developing societies and explores mechanisms that can bring about gender equity. More broadly, she is interested in the role of social norms, formal and informal institutions, and public policy in affecting social change. Dr. Anukriti received her Ph.D. in Economics from Columbia University, MA in Economics from the Delhi School of Economics, and BA (Honors) from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi. Prior to joining the World Bank in July 2020, she was an Assistant Professor of Economics at Boston College. She is also a Research Affiliate at the Institute for Labor Economics (IZA) and a Fellow of the Center for Development Economics and Policy at Columbia University. 

Nayantara Sarma

E T Consultant, World Bank

Nayantara is a researcher with the Chief Economist Office for South Asia at the World Bank. She holds a Ph.D. in Development Economics from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland and an MSc in Economics from the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research.

Nour Nasr

Behavioral scientist, World Bank

Nour Nasr is a behavioral scientist with World Bank’s Mind, Behavior & Development Unit (eMBeD), within the Poverty and Equity Global Practice, based in Beirut, Lebanon. Before joining the Bank, she served as an Associate Director and Head of Research at the Arab Foundation for Freedoms and Equality, working on knowledge production and movement building around gender, sexuality, and bodily rights in the Middle East and North Africa region. She has taught Psychology, Organizational Psychology, and Gender at the American University of Beirut and the Lebanese American University until 2017. For more than 10 years, her work has focused on gender and its intersectionality with migration, economic empowerment, and minority rights in the Middle East. Nasr holds an MSc. in Organizational and Social Psychology from the London School of Economics and an MRes. in Management and Innovation from SKEMA Business School.

Aletheia Donald

Economist, Africa Chief Economist Office, World Bank

Aletheia Donald is an economist working at the Gender Innovation Lab, within the World Bank’s Africa Chief Economist Office. Her current research focuses on identifying and addressing gender-based constraints through the analysis of development project impacts and improving the measurement of their outcomes. Before joining the World Bank, Aletheia was a Research Fellow at Harvard’s Evidence for Policy Design and Head of Research for the NGO Empower Dalit Women of Nepal. She holds a Master’s degree from Yale University.