For the current generation of working-age adults, public interventions to increase female employment will require policies that address the social, cultural, and security constraints facing urban and rural women in entering labor markets. In the long term, targeted investments to improve female education and health can enable more women to secure higher paying jobs. Child labor, however, will require a more strategic approach, going beyond legislation to eliminating the worst forms of child labor and increasing school enrollment for poor and vulnerable households through targeted cash transfers. Long term, child labor can be eliminated only by investments in human capital; short term, by incentives and penalties for private and informal employers. Because Pakistan has so many informal workers, skills-enhancing policies are needed to allow them to graduate into better paid formal jobs and to ensure that they receive basic social protection. Pro - grams providing market-oriented skills hold promise, though they need to be evaluated carefully before being implemented on a large scale. Active labor market programs such as short-term public works programs that hire seasonal laborers, might also be considered for vulnerable workers, primarily post-crisis.