Devolution under Kenya’s new 2010 Constitution has wide-ranging implications for the water sector. The Constitution recognizes that access to safe and sufficient water is a basic human right. It also assigns responsibility for water supply and sanitation provision to 47 newly established counties. Effective implementation of the new devolved framework now requires the water sector to focus on the emerging opportunities and to address a number of challenges. This note analyses the pertinent issues and options for national government and county leadership to achieve sustainable delivery of improved water services under the new dispensation.