As in many developing countries, data collection has proved to be a considerable challenge in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The country has contended with what are said to be amongst the highest levels of crime and violence in the world, and there have been ongoing Government and donor interventions in the law and justice field for several decades. Yet, for the most part, these efforts have been undertaken without a strong evidence base and without reliable data on crime rates. They lack a clear understanding of the most frequent or serious legal disputes faced by citizens, or indeed which institutions are actually used to obtain redress for the legal wrongs they experience. Where interventions do not have a strong empirical base, they are difficult to design for measurable success.