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According to the government, 2.6 million hectares of Indonesian land burned between June and October 2015, an area four and half times the size of Bali. By October 2015, eight provinces had burned more than 100,000 hectares each. This is a particularly troubling development because Papua’s peatlands are some of the last intact in Indonesia. Draining and conversion of peatland, driven largely by palm oil production, contributes to the intensity of haze from fire. Indonesia’s fire story is not just one of loss and damage; fires contribute to significant economic upside for a diverse, if concentrated, group of actors.