Knowledge Note

"Protection levels and construction costs shape capital costs"

Flood damages are expected to increase significantly over the 21st century as sea-level rise, more intense precipitation, and extreme weather events combine with socioeconomic developments to put an ever-rising number of people and an ever-more-expensive value of assets at risk in coastal and riverine floodplains. While increased damages and corresponding adaptation costs might well be the most costly impacts of climate change, little attention has been paid so far to the investments needed in flood protection.