"This paper examines emerging digital technologies and architectures that could be used to enhance and connect the heterogeneous climate actions across countries and support the development of post-2020 climate markets. "
Since its adoption in December 2015 by the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21), within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 175 countries to date have ratified the Paris Agreement. These countries have made commitments to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), in some cases contingent on financing by developed countries, to limit or reduce their Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a variety of measures including more significant deployment of renewable power, energy efficiency, land-use controls such as conservation of forests and grasslands, carbon pricing, and other measures compatible with each country’s national circumstances and capabilities. To foster higher ambition and sustainable development, and also encourage large-scale financing towards the most effective mitigation measures, Article 6 of the Agreement recognizes that countries may engage in cooperative approaches, including the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs) towards their individual NDC.
In this new, complex, and diverse environment, this paper aims to examine emerging digital technologies and architectures that could be used to enhance and connect heterogeneous climate actions across countries, thereby supporting post-2020 climate markets that facilitate the most cost-effective achievement of the highest possible ambition.