Knowledge Note

India is highly vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly earthquakes, flood, drought, cyclone and landslides. In the last decade, India has seen some major disasters including the Bhuj earthquake in 2001 and the tsunami in 2004. The Odisha state disaster management authority (OSDMA) set up after the super cyclone of 1999 was the first disaster mitigation authority set up in the country. India in the last decade has also made significant strides in moving from reactive emergency response to being proactive and implementing disaster preparedness and risk reduction initiatives. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) based mapping is playing a major role in achieving the objectives of the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP). It is helping in enhancing the effectiveness of early warning dissemination systems and communication, improving access and evacuation and in better locating infrastructure.